Four of these vehicles – ESF 5, ESF 13 (both based on the medium-class W 114/“Stroke 8” series), ESF 22 and ESF 24 (both based on the W 116-series S-Class) – were presented to the public. The first ESF vehicle for many years, and the direct predecessor to the ESF 2019, was the ESF 2009. This research vehicle celebrated its premiere on 15 June 2009, at the 21st ESV (Enhanced Safety of Vehicles) conference in Stuttgart. Numerous innovations in the ESF 2009 have meanwhile entered series production. These include e.g. the beltbag available for the S-Class, PRE-SAFE® Impulse Side for the E-Class, CLS and GLE and Active High Beam Assist Plus, which is available for many model series.